Ancient Egypt : Contemporary civilizations
It is relevant to understand that Egypt was not the only civilization which existed that time. The first civilizations which were contemporary to Egypt were ancient China, India, Middle east.
Ancient China – About 5000 BC around Huang Ho river (Yellow river). They lived in small villages, grew crops, owned families, used wooden chariot, bronze tools, burial system, engraving and were isolated from rest of world for hundreds of years. First dynasty was Shang in 1750 BC -1100 BC.Then was Zhou from 1100 BC to 350 BC. The philosopher Confucius belonged to this time.
Greek Civilization – The so called Greek civilization was formed of two civilizations Minoan Crete (6000 BC-1450 BC) and Phoenicians (1500 BC – 1000 BC). Minoan Crete was one of the greatest civilization of its time.They were good traders, made exquisite pottery, jewelry, metal works. This was unearthed in a digging in Greek island of Crete in 1900 AD. They suddenly vanished in 1450 BC probably in volcanic eruption.
Phoenicians civilization was founder of modern alphabet, the Greek. They developed alphabet system which was later adopted by Greeks and was basis of modern Greek alphabets. Just note that Chinese never ever had alphabets but only thousands of symbols. In this context we can understand the contribution of Greek civilization towards writing. They were good sailors, conducted voyages, built war ships, were good craftsmen, made exquisite pottery, jewelry, metal works, exported cedar trees, extracted oil from trees, dye, famous Tyrian clothes,
Civilization in Europe – By 2000 BC they also had started making huge monuments like Stone Henge in South England. But Amazingly Europe had never any significant civilization till late 1250 BC though they knew metals like gold and copper in 5000 BC yet they were just farmers. No concept of God and king or writing etc.
Mesopotamian Civilization- Mesopotamia region (land between and adjoining Euphrates and Tigris) was inhabited since 10000 BC. But Sumerians were the first civilization since 6000 BC. Later dominated by warrior Akkadians who were in north of Mesopotamia. In South Babylonia became more advanced culturally and Babylon and were in South of Mesopotamia. Later first Persian empire dominated fully the Mesopotamia and after that Romans.
Mesopotamian civilization invented first wheel and the first cursive script language, planting first cereal crops, maths, astronomy and agriculture, first written law.
Indus Valley Civilization- The people had started gathering around Indus river by 6000 BC but actual civilization developed on 2400 BC in place Harappa and Mohan Jodaro around Indus. They had very advanced system of irrigation, drainage, town planning and one of the first civilizations to use wheel. They also had their own writing system.
Of all these ancient civilizations Indus, Egypt and Mesopotamia contributed greatly to mankind.
Indus valley was known for town planning, Mesopotamia for writing system, wheel, Maths and Law, while Egypt for pyramids and temples and astrology and Phoenicians for Greek alphabet. In order to understand the ancient Egypt glory we must also understand the contemporary civilization of its time so that we can go deeper to understand ancient Egypt and its achievements.
Some of the monuments which you can visit cities Cairo, Abu Simnel and Luxer in Egypt in 7 days. Monuments to cover are Giza Pyramids, Papyrus Institute, Egyptian Museum of Antiquities in Cairo, Philae Temple’s island, God Sobek temple, Horus temple, temple of Nefertari in Aswan, Valley of the Kings, Hatshepsut Temple and the Colossi of Memnon on West bank of Nile.
Reference : Photo taken is from San Jose Museum, USA